When we train (all of us, of no matter what religion!) we train according to the rules of Operant Conditioning. I've made the point in the past that no matter how good we are Ole Man Pavlov is sitting on our shoulder. If a dogs basic animal instincts come into collision with our wonderful efforts ... he wins. It's not IMO a matter of disobedience, just the real world biting us in the bum. We can attach as many labels to the behaviour as we want, but it won't stop Fido chasing after Fidoette is she's "in an interesting condition".
and while I'm chuckling at my own hypothetical example, it does still make me raise the question....is a dog capable of willful disobedience if his instinct level is high enough?