The procedure I described has worked for me 2 out of 2 times thus far. In theory it can be just as efficient as a surgical and could produce larger litters than a TCI involving frozen or chilled semen. The amount of semen volume can exceed the capacity of the entire uterous and when followed by more of the same extender can easily force the semen all the way to the ends of the utirine horns for immediate contact with the eggs. The whole point I am trying to make is that this is a viable alternative for those without decent access to surgical or TCI implants. I have friends that have to drive at least 6 hours for any specialized Vet care. The chilled insemination involved semen with morphology issues. The person who collected,processed, and shipped it told us that surgical or TCI would have to be used. Upon arrival of the semen and evaluation we decided to do a vaginal AI and got ten pups. We did a side by side 5 weeks ago that showed at least 5 pups last week via ultra sound. The Vet College I use may be getting an endoscope for TCI's finally after my meeting with the aministrator in charge of equipment procurements but I like this insemination technique so well that I may opt for it on any involving semen that I own. No techniques will ever be 100% effective due to the uncertainties of estrus. False surges of progesterone or failure to maintain a high level of progesterone cause failure as well as poor semen that lose their tails or can't penetrate the eggs. My repro Vets worked at Cornell and then Penn before coming to the midwest to head this Therio department. They can extract semen from the testicles of a male that just passed away also. My personal Vet does not do much repro work so I use the Vet College Hospital for specialized procedures. Not trying to convince anyone to use thiss method but only to inform of altrenatives out there that work. I have only used surgical implants three times with one failure. The semen had a low count and was very sluggish post thaw.