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Basically People preform viral titers on dogs to ensure they are still protected against the particular disease, parvo, rabies, etc. They do this by testing dog serum-blood for anti-bodies against the disease, if they have a certain "titer" number of anti-bodies, they are considered protected against the disease. Most people run these tests in order prevent unnecessary re-vaccination, which for some dogs can cause serious side effects. Studies have found a strong correlations to multiple re-vaccination and several conditions, including Cancer and injection site sarcomas in cats. They are now doing these studies in dogs with similar results. Many studies have been done which show that protection for most vaccines, even a single injection is good for at least 7.5 yrs. (the length of the studies) but most likely will still be good for the lifetime of the dog. As such many people are adjusting vaccination protocols recommending less vaccinations. As most likely a vaccinated dog has and continues to have anti-bodies to the disease, "titers" do not show you much, it gives peace of mind. A few groups are pushing for viral titers to be accepted as alternatives for Rabies certification, but it has not gone through yet. Viral titer done on puppies, can show you when the litter is protected 6 weeks(~30%), 8, 12 or 16 (100%) weeks. They also help in the decision to re-vaccinate an immune compromised or older dog.

Realistically if you are kenneling dogs, a client that does viral titer knows that his dog is protected, verses a dog who is continuously vaccinated but never checked to see if the dog actually has antibodies. Where puppies are concerned Parvo is everywhere they find new strains all the time, for which there are no vaccines. Your more likely to get it from someone dragging in dirt, or dirt coming from other locations to your kennel, than from a dog carrying the disease. If you take a pup to a vet you have almost 100% chance of exposing the pup to distemper, kennel cough, and a whole variety of different diseases.

As a person who has seen legs amputated from injection site sarcomas, have had dogs in the emergency vet for rabies vaccine reactions, and as someone who continuously watches friends lose (highly-vaccinated) dogs to cancer, while siblings who have had very few injections, are still going strong @ 7, 9, and 15 yrs. I can appreciate the use of viral titer tests.
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